Khalife Mirzâ Âghe Ghowsi - Qâderi Dervishes of Kurdistan

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Qaderiye Sufi Order
Qaderi Sufi order, with followers in Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India, knows itself as based on mystical doctrines of Sheykh Abdolqader Gilani. However, according to history the famous Hanbali jurist of the 6th century after Hegira, himself did not found an order, and left it to his followers to enter such an endeavor. Qaderiye Order became known only as late as 9th century after Hegira, and is amongst few dervish orders, whose music ceremonies even nowadays, after issuing the permission by Khalife, are accompanied by miracles and wonders.

The order divides itself into two main branches known as Talebani, and Kasnazani. Their ceremonies are usually held on Fridays. Apart from this day, some beatific days in the calendar such as ‘eyd-e azha, the Prophet’s Birthday, the day of Prophet’s Ascension (known as mi’raj), occasions their ceremonies. Dervishes’ presence in front of their audience does not ruin the authenticity and quality of their performances; they are not bothered when witnessed by ordinary people. They even install loudspeakers outside their khaneqahs, in different neighborhoods, to communicate with other people through their music ceremonies.

Each Qaderi zekr is composed of two distinct sections: zekr-e tahlil and zekr-e qiyam. The former (known also as zekr-e neshaste) begins with avaz in free meter, something more like a speech-song. The words sung in this section are salavat, and eulogies to mystics and saints. Afterwards, it comes the turn of metric numbers, occasionally comprising nearly the whole part of section. Each number includes a short theme in few measures, on words of Persian or Kurdish classical poetry, and accompanied by daf. More sophisticated pieces have the same quality as that of a highly developed tasnif. This section with its irresistible rhythmic patterns played by daf ensemble, could be regarded as an authentic Sama’ ceremony. Ney is the only melodic instrument used in Sama’, but it is not ubiquitously found in qaderi music festivals. On the opposite, daf is the most esteemed instrument and its presence a conditio sine qua non. Daf elevates the players and listeners alike to a state of rapture. And is regarded as a holy instrument with a rich symbolism; e.g. the number of its chain loops (namely 101) is the number of attributes of the Supreme Being.

Zekr-e qiyam (or zekr-e tawhid) comes immediately after zekr-e tahlil. All performers stand up and sing to the rhythms of daf and tabl. Sometimes, on the ostinato rhythm in the background, few or more dervishes begin to sing separately, creating a unique combination of sound and poetry. At this moment and after some transient fluctuations, the rhythm usually speeds up, and duple meter turns into triple meter. The participants whirl around and respond with their audibly loud breathings to zekrs. Gradually all are transported, and at this very moment each person begins to sing his own zekr without any concern about being concordant to others. The rhythms again begin to accelerate and 1-2 minutes before reaching the end, daf players stop playing and a very fast zekr is sung.

The whole lot that could extend from 45 minutes to more than 2 hours, is terminated with zekr “Allah Allah Allah Hey!” and a requiem for the dead.

The pieces 1, 3, 5, 9, 13 are song before daf playing of zekr-e tahlil, the pieces 6, 7, 8, 11, 12 are performed with daf accompaniment at zekr-e tahlil, and pieces 2, 4, 10 belong to zekr-e qiyam.
[01]. Besmellâh
[02]. Fadâ-ye Rokhsâr
[03]. Ey Khodâyâ
[04]. Rafiqân
[05]. Maqâm
[06]. Mâ dar o Jahân
[07]. Zekr-e Yâ Rahmân
[08]. Yâ Rasulallâh I
[09]. Na't
[10]. Ey Mâh-e 'Âlamsuz
[11]. Az Gol porsidam
[12]. Dülbar
[13]. Salavât

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